RFID Access Control System using Arduino

RFID technology is used for a wide variety of applications including access control, package identification, warehouse stock control, point of sale scanning, retail anti-theft systems, toll-road passes, surgical instrument inventory, and even identifying individual sheets of paper placed on a desk. RFID tags are embedded in name badges, shipping labels, library books, product tags and boxes, installed in aircraft, hidden inside car keys, and implanted under the skin of animals or even people. RFID systems work on a wide range of frequencies, have a variety of modulation and encoding schemes, and vary from low-power passive devices with range of only a few millimetres to active systems that work for hundreds of kilometers.

RFID Access Control

RFID tags are produced in a wide variety of physical form factors to suit different deployment requirements. The most commonly seen form factor is a flat plastic card the same size as a credit card, often used as an access control pass to gain access to office buildings or other secure areas. The most common form by sheer number produced, even though you may not notice them, is RFID-enabled stickers that are commonly placed on boxes, packages, and products. Key fob tags are also quite common, designed to be attached to a keyring so they’re always handy for operating access control systems.

RFID Access Control Schematic

This project uses a pre-built RFID reader module to interrogate commonly-available passive tags, looks up the tag ID in an internal database, and release a lock using an electric strike plate if the tag is authorised.

Major Components in Project

General Parts
1Arduino Duemilanove, Arduino Pro, Seeeduino, or equivalent
1Prototyping shield
14-pin PCB-mount header with 90 degree bend
14-pin line-mount header socket
22-pin PCB-mount screw terminals
112V electric striker plate
112V single-pole, single-throw (SPST) or single-pole, double-throw (SPDT) PCB-mount relay
1LM7805 voltage regulator
2100nF capacitors (marked “104”)
122uF electrolytic capacitor
21N4001 or equivalent power diodes
2680R resistors
1%: blue-gray-black-black-brown
5%: blue-gray-brown-gold
14K7 resistor
1%: yellow-violet-brown-brown
5%: yellow-violet-red-gold
1100K resistor
1%: brown-black-black-orange-brown
5%: brown-black-yellow-gold
1BC547, BC548, 2N222, or equivalent NPN transistor
1Red LED
1Green LED
112V 1A power supply or plugpack
20cmRibbon cable
1125kHz RFID tag
1Small PVC box
For ID-12 reader
1ID-12 RFID reader module (www.id-solutions.com)
1ID-12 breakout board or custom PCB, as explained in the text
For RDM630 reader
1RDM630 125kHz RFID module (UART version) from Seeed Studio
For optional manual-release exit button
1Single-pole, single-throw (SPST) momentary pushbutton
12-pin PCB-mount screw terminal
2mLightweight two-core cable, such as figure-8 speaker wire

For more detail: RFID Access Control System using Arduino

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