Real-Time Body Temperature Tracking via IoT and LoRa Networks Using Arduino

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The research project described in the paper seeks to develop a real-time human body temperature tracking system using the Internet of Things (IoT) and LoRa wireless network technologies. Specifically, an Arduino microcontroller is used to interface with a body temperature sensor and transmit the sensor data via a LoRa module to monitor temperature readings in real time. The system aims to prove the feasibility of using IoT and LoRa for continuous health monitoring applications. Performance evaluation of the sensors and wireless platform is conducted to ensure suitability for healthcare use.


The abstract in the paper is essential and gives an insight into the main arguments explored in the article. For this, the work starts by positioning it within the field of IoT-based healthcare: healthcare is one such area where the use of IoT can contribute to society. Some challenges in remote healthcare such as continuous monitoring and resource availability are noted. The development of personalized treatment solutions using automated sensor data is highlighted as a way to reduce costs and improve outcomes.

The paper then introduces the specific system developed – an IoT-based health monitoring platform using the MySignals development shield connected to various biomedical sensors to collect physiological data like ECG, temperature, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation. LoRa wireless network technology is utilized to transmit the sensor readings to a monitoring device. The performance of the sensors and wireless devices is evaluated through data analysis and statistical methods to verify the system’s effectiveness. In summary, the abstract clearly outlines the motivation, approach, and goals of the research work.Real-Time-Body-Temperature-Tracking-via-IoT-and-LoRa-Networks-Using-Arduino

Role of IoT in Healthcare

The benefits of IoT technologies in terms of integration with healthcare systems and the provision of healthcare to patients are enormous. Another one of the most important areas that IoT has affected the healthcare sector is through remote patient monitoring applications which helps in addressing the problem of medical resources being scarce and the issue of access to care in remote/rural regions.

Continuous collection of vital sign data via wearable IoT sensors and wireless transmission to clinics can help monitor patients with chronic conditions at home instead of lengthy hospital stays. This reduces healthcare costs while improving quality of life. For example, IoT devices allowing diabetes patients to track blood sugar from home help prevent costly emergency visits from complications. Elderly populations benefit from remote fall detection systems and activity monitors that provide peace of mind to families by alerting caregivers during emergencies. Wearable sensors may even detect early signs of medical issues to facilitate faster interventions.

Telemedicine is another growing field empowered by IoT, enabling virtual consultations and remote diagnosis/treatment in areas lacking specialists. On a broader scale, aggregated IoT healthcare data offers valuable population health insights. Large datasets capturing patterns of diseases and wellness metrics across demographics can guide resource allocation and prevention strategies by regulators. Over time, widespread deployment of IoT healthcare networks may reveal new clinical perspectives to advance medical research as well. While promising vast improvements, IoT-enabled healthcare must address concerns of data security, privacy, and technical reliability to become widely adopted. Strong access controls, anonymization practices, and encryption capabilities are needed to gain user trust considering the sensitive nature of medical records. System designs should also account for intermittent wireless connectivity issues that could disrupt real-time services


The introduction section begins by providing background on IoT and its widespread applications across different domains thanks to enabling technologies like RFID, wireless protocols, and LPWANs. Healthcare is identified as a key application area for IoT given its potential to improve various healthcare processes and provide remote access to medical care. Some driving factors for IoT in healthcare mentioned are transforming systems to be more efficient, coordinated, and patient-centric.
Challenges in current healthcare systems like addressing health issues globally and in developing nations are noted as motivations for leveraging the IoT. The networking of devices, cloud services, and diverse cooperation mechanisms offered by IoT confluence with standards, wireless protocols, and low-power technologies are said to support new healthcare and monitoring applications. LPWAN technologies particularly are highlighted for enabling new human-centric health and wireless monitoring use cases. LoRa is introduced as a promising LPWAN protocol for applications with low-powered end devices transmitting small amounts of data either device-initiated or network-initiated. Key LoRa characteristics compared to other network technologies are summarized in a table, showing attributes like its long communication range and lower data rates making it well-suited for IoT healthcare systems.

In summary, the introduction effectively sets the context for the research by outlining the growth of IoT applications generally and their specific relevance and opportunities in healthcare. It presents LoRa as a suitable wireless technology for the envisaged health monitoring system based on its networking properties.

Related Work

This section reviews previous related work on IoT-based healthcare systems and monitoring applications. It classifies such systems broadly into clinical care, remote monitoring, and context-aware domains based on patient needs and the level of medical attention required.
Several research prototypes and proposed architectures are discussed such as a two-stage remote monitoring system collecting sensor data via a Femto-LTE network. The Body Sensor Network (BSN) technology underpinning many monitoring platforms is described. Open-source BSN frameworks like SPINE and its collaborative extension C-SPINE supporting sensor data fusion are outlined. A specific emotion detection system called e-Shake leveraging the C-SPINE framework is highlighted, demonstrating heart rate analysis during handshake events. Graphical representations are provided to visualize the system. Other wireless health monitoring systems found in literature employing technologies like Zigbee, Bluetooth, and WiFi are also surveyed and depicted visually with relevant figures.

The section notes how LoRa differs from short-range wireless alternatives in providing wide-area connectivity for low-power devices. Existing issues in IoT healthcare addressed by LoRa integration of medical sensors, cloud, and gateways are identified. Finally, research validating LoRa for indoor and large-area monitoring applications is reviewed, establishing it as a suitable technology for the project scope.

Development Methodology

This section details the methodology adopted for developing the proposed IoT healthcare monitoring system. A block diagram depicts the overall components involving biomedical sensors interfaced with the MySignals platform and Arduino microcontroller. Sensor data is transmitted wirelessly via a LoRa module connected to the Arduino through a multiprotocol radio shield.Development-Methodology

Specifications of the key devices – MySignals development platform supporting 15 sensors, Arduino Uno microcontroller, and LoRa wireless modules are tabulated. Diagrams visually illustrate the MySignals with sensor ports and WiFi module, along with the LoRa integration using the multiprotocol shield and Waspmote gateway.

The physiological metrics of ECG, temperature, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation to be monitored based on predictive health value are described. The methods of sensor data analysis involving serial monitoring and LoRa data receipt are explained with a flowchart. In summary, the section clearly communicates the system design and choices pertaining to hardware, sensors, and data evaluation approach.

MySignals Development Platform

The MySignals hardware used in the system serves as an effective IoT development platform for building customized e-health monitoring prototypes. Its modular architecture supporting up to 15 biomedical and environmental sensors via detection pins facilitates experimenting with different sensing configurations. Electronics are an important part of building these customized e-health monitoring prototypes as they allow for the monitoring of various biomedical and environmental sensors.

On-board features like a real-time clock, micro-SD card slot, and prototyping area broaden the types of healthcare applications it can prototype. For instance, long-term continuous logging of patient metrics is achievable using local storage. Its small form factor and low-power design also make it well-suited for wearable/mobile health devices.

Integration of an ESP8266 WiFi module enables cloud uploads of collected measurements besides the wireless transmission methods evaluated in this research. This paves the way for richer telehealth solutions incorporating real-time data dashboards, activity tracking apps, and clinical alerts over the internet. Large-scale deployments become more viable too with networked sensors.

Being open-source also stimulates further enhancements from developer communities. Potential extensions include specialized modules expanding sensing capabilities into new medical domains like respiratory monitoring, advanced biometric analysis through integrated processing units, and integration of emerging wireless technologies as they mature.

Overall, MySignals presented a robust IoT prototyping platform benefiting this healthcare project, while its continuing evolution maintains relevancy for building future smart wellness solutions through flexible upgrades. The adoption of such open modular platforms can help accelerate real-world deployments of IoT healthcare applications.

Results and Discussion

This section reports and analyzes the results obtained from developing and testing the IoT healthcare monitoring system.
A diagram first depicts the overall assembled system setup. ECG readings directly from the human body using the sensor are presented. Temperature, pulse, and oxygen saturation levels collected via the Arduino serial monitor are displayed and found to match normal human ranges with statistical analysis confirming accuracy.Results-and-Discussion


Readings received over LoRa using a terminal program are similarly shown to validate end-to-end wireless transmission. Graphs of gathered temperature, pulse, and oxygen saturation data are plotted. Statistical metrics like mean, standard deviation, and confidence intervals are calculated from samples to quantify data reliability.

Hypothesis testing using Z-scores further confirms the sensor measurements align with expected values based on human physiology. Performance is evaluated against increasing transmission ranges noting associated time/energy costs. Protocol specifications are analyzed to validate LoRa feasibility for the sensor data rates/volumes.

Security attributes of AES encryption embedded in LoRa to ensure privacy and integrity of transmitted healthcare information are outlined. Finally, competing wireless technologies are compared to LoRa in attributes critical for healthcare IoT like data rates, ranges, and power usage, establishing its comparative advantages.

In summary, thorough experimental results and performance analyses are presented to demonstrate the functioning of the integrated system and the suitability of the IoT/LoRa approach for health monitoring applications based on evaluation against established medical and technical criteria.

Interfacing Biomedical Sensors

Interface design with the appropriate selection of biomedical sensors is crucial for any physiological monitoring system. The sensors integrated here – ECG, temperature, pulse oximeter, and pulse rate – measure key vital signs indicative of patient health status.

ECG readings reflecting the heart’s electrical activity offer a critical diagnosis of cardiac issues. Body temperature serves as an important baseline health metric and fever indicator. Pulse oximetry and heart rate values provide key insights into blood oxygen levels and cardiovascular function respectively. Together, continuous monitoring of these parameters allows for building comprehensive wellness profiles over time while also detecting acute issues or changes triggering the need for medical attention. Their selection was validated through the experiment’s physiological scope.

To interface such biomedical sensors, appropriate signal conditioning must be applied depending on output specifications to ensure high measurement fidelity. For instance, ECG signals require amplification due to low microvolt levels, while temperatures are typically measured in Celsius/Fahrenheit using thermistors requiring voltage dividers.

Considerations like sensor response times, accuracy tolerances, long long-term drifts also impact system design to provide reliable data. Standardized analog/digital conversion techniques then prepare signals for wireless transmission and analysis on monitoring systems. Proper power optimization of sensors aids miniaturization of portable devices as well.

Overall, choosing versatile plug-and-play medical sensors according to project needs and exercising care in interfacing circuitry served this research objective of developing a functional physiological monitoring demonstrator to then evaluate IoT connectivity performance.


The conclusion section summarizes the key aspects and outcomes of the research work. It is reiterated that the paper details the development of a real-time physiological monitoring system using biomedical sensors interfaced with the MySignals platform and LoRa wireless transmission of readings.
The successful interfacing and integration of ECG, temperature, pulse, and oxygen sensors to collect vital signs data is highlighted. It is also noted that statistical analyses were conducted to prove system effectiveness in terms of data accuracy and reliability based on established medical standards. In closing, it is asserted that the overall performance of the IoT-based health monitoring platform was deemed effective for continuous patient tracking purposes based on collected measurements corresponding well to normal human baselines. The work therefore proves the feasibility of the proposed approach for healthcare applications. The contributions of each author are also acknowledged. This research was funded by a grant from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, with no competing interests declared by the authors. Finally, around 40 relevant references are provided to substantiate assertions and compare the work against the wider technical literature in this domain.

In summary, the conclusion succinctly recaps the goal, outcomes achieved, and significance of the research work in validating the designed IoT healthcare monitoring system based on thorough experimental evaluation and analyses. It reinforces the merit and potential impacts of the solution developed.

About The Author

Ibrar Ayyub

I am an experienced technical writer holding a Master's degree in computer science from BZU Multan, Pakistan University. With a background spanning various industries, particularly in home automation and engineering, I have honed my skills in crafting clear and concise content. Proficient in leveraging infographics and diagrams, I strive to simplify complex concepts for readers. My strength lies in thorough research and presenting information in a structured and logical format.

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