Audible Frequency Chirp Sonar with the Stellaris Launchpad

Over the last year I’ve been working towards an underwater sonar system for ROVs and surface boats. In order to learn the basic signal processing required to detect the echoes, I initially got a simple sonar working in air with a desktop conferencing USB speaker/mic running on Windows. A writeup, including source, is here. That article describes the algorithms used in detail and would be a good read if you want the details of how this works.
The next logical step seemed to be to get it working on a microcontroller. There are plenty of low cost ultrasonic sonar modules available that work really well in air, but the idea was to work towards getting a sonar that worked in water. There are currently no low cost sonar modules for hobby use in water. Additionally, the low cost modules only give one echo – with a signal processing approach like this, you get a series of echoes that may convey more information about the environment. As an example, a boat floating above a school of fish could detect both the fish and the bottom.
Audible Frequency Chirp Sonar with the Stellaris Launchpad
I selected a Stellaris Launchpad because of the high speed analog to digital converters (ADC) and the 32 Kof RAM. At the required sample rates, the Launchpad has just enough RAM to send a chirp, and then record a fraction of a second of audio so that the echoes can be determined. Higher frequency sound will require a higher sampling rate, so I may need to switch to a Teensy 3.1, which has 64K of RAM.
A chirp waveform is computed and sent to a small piezo speaker driven by a simple transistor circuit. The piezo supply voltage (VCC in the diagram below) is provided by 3 nine-volt batteries in series to obtain 27V. This diagram shows how it is connected. This is not my diagram – I found it online, but I don’t have a reference. If this is yours, please drop me a line.

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