PID Theory Explained

Overview Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control is the most common control algorithm used in industry and has been universally accepted in industrial control. The popularity of PID controllers can be attributed partly to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity, which allows engineers to operate them in a simple, straightforward manne ...

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AC Power Theory – Arduino maths

Instantaneous Voltage and current As the name suggests, AC Voltage and current continually alternate. If we draw a picture of the voltage and current waveform over time, it will look something like the image below. Depending on the type of load consuming power, the current waveform - blue in the diagram below - is what you get if you look at a typical laptop computer power supply. (There's an incandescent l ...

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Digital to Analogue Converter (DAC) DAC Theory

A digital to analogue converter takes a series of digital inputs (a string of 1s and 0s, in our case there will be 8 of them like 10011001) and converts it into an analogue output. You see DACs in every digital audio device (MP3 players, CD players) as these all store music in digital form, but need to drive a speaker with an analogue signal. Hence the need to convert the digital data into an analogue signa ...

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AC Power Theory – Arduino maths

Instantaneous Voltage and current AC Voltage and current continually alternate, as the name suggests, if we draw a picture of the voltage and current waveform over time, it will look something like the image below (depending on what's using power - the current waveform - blue in the diagram below - is what you get if you look at a typical laptop power supply. There's an incandescent light bulb in there as w ...

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