Arduino Based Fire Fighting Robot




According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), it is estimated that more than 1.2 lakh deaths have been caused because of fire accidents in India from 2010-2014. Even though there are a lot of precautions taken for Fire accidents, these natural/man-made disasters do occur now and then. In the event of a fire breakout, to rescue people and to put out the fire we are forced to use human resources which are not safe. With the advancement of technology especially in Robotics it is very much possible to replace humans with robots for fighting the fire. This would improve the efficiency of firefighters and would also prevent them from risking human lives. Today we are going to build a Fire Fighting Robot using Arduino, which will automatically sense the fire and start the water pump.

Arduino Based Fire Fighting Robot

In this project, we will learn how to build a simple robot using Arduino that could move towards the fire and pump out water around it to put down the fire. It is a very simple robot that would teach us the underlying concept of robotics; you would be able to build more sophisticated robots once you understand the following basics. So let’s get started…

Material Required:

  1. Arduino UNO
  2. Fire sensor or Flame sensor (3 Nos)
  3. Servo Motor (SG90)
  4. L293D motor Driver module
  5. Small Breadboard
  6. Robot chassis with motors and wheel (any type)
  7. A small can
  8. Connecting wires

Working Concept of Fire Fighting Robot:

As you can see these sensors have an IR Receiver (Photodiode) which is used to detect the fire. How is this possible? When fire burns it emits a small amount of Infra-red light, this light will be received by the IR receiver on the sensor module. Then we use an Op-Amp to check for change in voltage across the IR Receiver, so that if a fire is detected the output  pin (DO) will give 0V(LOW) and if the is no fire the output pin will be 5V(HIGH).

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So, we place three such sensors in three directions of the robot to sense on which direction the fire is burning.




We detect the direction of the fire we can use the motors to move near the fire by driving our motors through the L293D module. When near a fire we have to put it out using water. Using a small container we can carry water, a 5V pump is also placed in the container and the whole container is placed on top of a servo motor so that we can control the direction in which the water has to be sprayed. Let’s proceed with the connections now.

You can either connect all the shown connections for uploading the program to check the working or you can assemble the bot completely and then proceed with the connections. Both ways the connections are very simple and you should be able to get it right.

Based on the robotic chassis that you are using you might not be able to use the same type of container that I am using. In that case use your own creativity to set up the pumping system. However the code will remain same. I used a small aluminium can (cool drinks can) to set the pump inside it and poured water inside it. I then assembled the whole can on top of a servo motor to control the direction of water. My robot looks something like this after assembly.

As you can see, I have fixed the servo fin to the bottom of the container using got glue and have fixed the servo motor with chassis using nuts and bolts. We can simply place the container on top of the motor and trigger the pump inside it to pump water outside through the tube. The whole container can then be rotated using the servo to control the direction of the water.

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Arduino Based Fire Fighting Robot Schematic

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This Post / Project can also be found using search terms:

  • fire fighting robot based on aurduino
  • fire fighting robot project using arduino pdf

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