PNP Transistor – How Does It Work?

The PNP transistor is a mystery to many. But it doesn’t have to be. If you want to design circuits with transistors, it’s really worth knowing about this type of transistor. For example: Want to automatically turn on a light when it gets dark? The PNP transistor will make this easy for you. In my article how transistors work, I explained how a standard NPN transistor works. If you haven’t already, I’d reall ...

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“Chipiplexing” efficiently drives multiple LEDs using few microcontroller ports

Actual microcontrollers have powerful bidirectional I/O ports, and you can use different techniques to fully exploit such capabilities. Recent Design Ideas described the “Charlieplexing” method as an effective way to drive M=N×(N–1) LEDs using only N bidirectional I/O ports and N resistors (reference 1 and reference 2). Unfortunately, using Charlieplexing allows you to drive only one LED at a time, so, when ...

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