Arduino UNO LCD Game: An Entertaining Display Project

Introduction

Mastering Arduino programming is a straightforward endeavor. All you require is a computer and a bit of time. Among the significant Arduino programming simulators available, Wokwi stands out. Why, you ask? Find out here.

This article demonstrates the process of interfacing the LCD1602 with an Arduino UNO, complete with programming. Thanks to the Wokwi embedded systems simulator, presenting this project is effortlessly achievable. All I need to do is share a link.

Connection diagram

Arduino UNO and lcd1602 simulator

Components needed

Arduino UNO, jumper wires, LCD1602, USB cable for powering the UNO, and a toggle switch are the components needed for this setup.

Brief description

This project initiates the game upon pressing the switch. Your objective is to shield the character from incoming blocks. The score will be prominently showcased at the top right corner of the display.

As it’s evident, the character used isn’t a conventional symbol. It’s possible to design your own symbols and store them within the LCD’s EEPROM location for display.

Conclusion

Simplifying project sharing on the Wokwi simulator allows you to effortlessly share your projects with others. This sharing feature is beneficial for seeking assistance or showcasing your designs. If you have inquiries about this project or the simulation tool itself, feel free to ask.

Schematics

Code

#include

#define PIN_BUTTON 2
#define PIN_AUTOPLAY 1
#define PIN_READWRITE 10
#define PIN_CONTRAST 12

#define SPRITE_RUN1 1
#define SPRITE_RUN2 2
#define SPRITE_JUMP 3
#define SPRITE_JUMP_UPPER ‘.’ // Use the ‘.’ character for the head
#define SPRITE_JUMP_LOWER 4
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY ‘ ‘ // User the ‘ ‘ character
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID 5
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT 6
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT 7

#define HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION 1 // Horizontal position of hero on screen

#define TERRAIN_WIDTH 16
#define TERRAIN_EMPTY 0
#define TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK 1
#define TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK 2

#define HERO_POSITION_OFF 0 // Hero is invisible
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1 1 // Hero is running on lower row (pose 1)
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2 2 // (pose 2)

#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1 3 // Starting a jump
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_2 4 // Half-way up
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3 5 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_4 6 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5 7 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_6 8 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_7 9 // Half-way down
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8 10 // About to land

#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1 11 // Hero is running on upper row (pose 1)
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2 12 // (pose 2)

LiquidCrystal lcd(11, 9, 6, 5, 4, 3);
static char terrainUpper[TERRAIN_WIDTH + 1];
static char terrainLower[TERRAIN_WIDTH + 1];
static bool buttonPushed = false;

void initializeGraphics(){
static byte graphics[] = {
// Run position 1
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B01110,
B11100,
B01100,
B11010,
B10011,
// Run position 2
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B01100,
B01100,
B01100,
B01100,
B01110,
// Jump
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B11110,
B01101,
B11111,
B10000,
B00000,
// Jump lower
B11110,
B01101,
B11111,
B10000,
B00000,
B00000,
B00000,
B00000,
// Ground
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
// Ground right
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
// Ground left
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
};
int i;
// Skip using character 0, this allows lcd.print() to be used to
// quickly draw multiple characters
for (i = 0; i < 7; ++i) {
lcd.createChar(i + 1, &graphics[i * 8]);
}
for (i = 0; i < TERRAIN_WIDTH; ++i) {
terrainUpper[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
terrainLower[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
}
}

// Slide the terrain to the left in half-character increments
//
void advanceTerrain(char* terrain, byte newTerrain){
for (int i = 0; i < TERRAIN_WIDTH; ++i) { char current = terrain[i]; char next = (i == TERRAIN_WIDTH-1) ? newTerrain : terrain[i+1]; switch (current){ case SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY: terrain[i] = (next == SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID) ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY; break; case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID: terrain[i] = (next == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT : SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID; break; case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT: terrain[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID; break; case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT: terrain[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY; break; } } } bool drawHero(byte position, char* terrainUpper, char* terrainLower, unsigned int score) { bool collide = false; char upperSave = terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION]; char lowerSave = terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION]; byte upper, lower; switch (position) { case HERO_POSITION_OFF: upper = lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY; break; case HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1: upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY; lower = SPRITE_RUN1; break; case HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2: upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY; lower = SPRITE_RUN2; break; case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1: case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8: upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY; lower = SPRITE_JUMP; break; case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_2: case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_7: upper = SPRITE_JUMP_UPPER; lower = SPRITE_JUMP_LOWER; break; case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3: case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_4: case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5: case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_6: upper = SPRITE_JUMP; lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY; break; case HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1: upper = SPRITE_RUN1; lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY; break; case HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2: upper = SPRITE_RUN2; lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY; break; } if (upper != ‘ ‘) { terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = upper; collide = (upperSave == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? false : true; } if (lower != ‘ ‘) { terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = lower; collide |= (lowerSave == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? false : true; } byte digits = (score > 9999) ? 5 : (score > 999) ? 4 : (score > 99) ? 3 : (score > 9) ? 2 : 1;

// Draw the scene
terrainUpper[TERRAIN_WIDTH] = ‘\0’;
terrainLower[TERRAIN_WIDTH] = ‘\0’;
char temp = terrainUpper[16-digits];
terrainUpper[16-digits] = ‘\0’;
lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print(terrainUpper);
terrainUpper[16-digits] = temp;
lcd.setCursor(0,1);
lcd.print(terrainLower);

lcd.setCursor(16 – digits,0);
lcd.print(score);

terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = upperSave;
terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = lowerSave;
return collide;
}

// Handle the button push as an interrupt
void buttonPush() {
buttonPushed = true;
}

void setup(){
pinMode(PIN_READWRITE, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_READWRITE, LOW);
pinMode(PIN_CONTRAST, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_CONTRAST, LOW);
pinMode(PIN_BUTTON, INPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_BUTTON, HIGH);
pinMode(PIN_AUTOPLAY, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_AUTOPLAY, HIGH);

// Digital pin 2 maps to interrupt 0
attachInterrupt(0/*PIN_BUTTON*/, buttonPush, FALLING);

initializeGraphics();

lcd.begin(16, 2);
}

void loop(){
static byte heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
static byte newTerrainType = TERRAIN_EMPTY;
static byte newTerrainDuration = 1;
static bool playing = false;
static bool blink = false;
static unsigned int distance = 0;

if (!playing) {
drawHero((blink) ? HERO_POSITION_OFF : heroPos, terrainUpper, terrainLower, distance >> 3);
if (blink) {
lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print(“Press Start”);
}
delay(250);
blink = !blink;
if (buttonPushed) {
initializeGraphics();
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
playing = true;
buttonPushed = false;
distance = 0;
}
return;
}

// Shift the terrain to the left
advanceTerrain(terrainLower, newTerrainType == TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY);
advanceTerrain(terrainUpper, newTerrainType == TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY);

// Make new terrain to enter on the right
if (–newTerrainDuration == 0) {
if (newTerrainType == TERRAIN_EMPTY) {
newTerrainType = (random(3) == 0) ? TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK : TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK;
newTerrainDuration = 2 + random(10);
} else {
newTerrainType = TERRAIN_EMPTY;
newTerrainDuration = 10 + random(10);
}
}

if (buttonPushed) {
if (heroPos <= HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2) heroPos = HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1; buttonPushed = false; } if (drawHero(heroPos, terrainUpper, terrainLower, distance >> 3)) {
playing = false; // The hero collided with something. Too bad.
} else {
if (heroPos == HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2 || heroPos == HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
} else if ((heroPos >= HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3 && heroPos <= HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5) && terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] != SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) { heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1; } else if (heroPos >= HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1 && terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5;
} else if (heroPos == HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1;
} else {
++heroPos;
}
++distance;

digitalWrite(PIN_AUTOPLAY, terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION + 2] == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY ? HIGH : LOW);
}
delay(50);
}


About The Author

Ibrar Ayyub

I am an experienced technical writer with a Master's degree in computer science from BZU Multan University. I have written for various industries, mainly home automation, and engineering. I have a clear and simple writing style and am skilled in using infographics and diagrams. I am a great researcher and is able to present information in a well-organized and logical manner.

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