Arduino-based Ultrasonic Radar System via IOT




Abstract

RADAR is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. Radar systems come in a variety of sizes and have different performance specifications. Some radar systems are used for air-traffic control at airports, and others are used for long range surveillance and early-warning systems. A radar system is the heart of a missile guidance system. Small portable radar systems that can be maintained and operated by one person are available, as well as systems that occupy several large rooms.

Arduino-based Ultrasonic Radar System via IOT




Radar was secretly developed by several nations before and during World War II. The term RADAR itself, not the actual development, was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging. The term radar has since entered English and other languages; as a common noun radar loses all capitalization.

The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including:

  • Air traffic control
  • Aircraft anti-collision systems

High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing and are capable of extracting useful information from very high noise level.

Army, Navy and the Air Force make use of this technology. The use of such technology has been seen recently in the self-parking car systems launched by Audi, Ford, etc., and even the upcoming driverless cars by Google, like Prius and Lexus.

The project made by us can be used in any systems the customer may want to use like in a car, a bicycle or anything else. The use of Arduino [1] in the project provides even more flexibility of usage of the aforementioned module according to the requirements.

The idea of making an Ultrasonic RADAR came as a part of a study carried out on the working and mechanism of “Automobiles of Future”. Also, being students of EEE, we have always been curious about the latest ongoing technology in the world like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Beagle-Bone boards, etc. Hence, this time we were able to get a hold of one of the Arduino boards, Arduino UNO R3. So, knowing about the power and vast processing capabilities of the Arduino, we thought of making it big and a day to day application specific module that can be used and configured easily at any place and by anyone.

Moreover, in this fast moving world there is an immense need for the tools that can be used for the betterment of the mankind rather than devastating their lives. Hence, we decided to make some of the changes and taking the advantage of the processing capabilities of Arduino [1], we decided to make up the module more application specific.

Hence, from the idea of the self driving cars came the idea of self-parking cars. The main problem of the people in India and even most of the countries is safety while driving. So, we came up with a solution to that by making use of this project to continuously scan the area for traffic, population, etc., as well as offer protection of the vehicles at the same time to prevent accidents or minor scratches to the vehicle

Now we are connecting them with the IOT to gain access wirelessly via the Internet and cloud storage.

Keywords: sonar + radar, ultrasonic, Arduino, processing, servo, 180 degree range, obstacle, IOT, cloud storage.

INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPONENTS USED

Introduction to Arduino

The Arduino is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega. It has 14 digital Input/Output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16MHz ceramic resonator, USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega16U2 programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.

Changes in Uno R3 [4]

1. Pin out: added SDA and SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin and two other new pins placed near to the reset pin, the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the voltage provided from the board. In future, shields will be compatible with both the board that uses the AVR, which operates with 5v and with the Arduino due that operates with 3.3v.

2. Stronger RESET circuit.

3. ATmega16U2 replace the 8U2.

“Uno” means one in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming release of Arduino 1.0. The Uno and version 1.0 will be the reference versions of Arduino, moving forward. The Uno is the latest in a series of USB Arduino boards, and the reference model for the Arduino platform; for a comparison with previous versions, see the index of Arduino Boards.

Microcontroller ATmega328 specifications

  • Operating Voltage: 5V
  • Input Voltage (recommended): 7-12V
  • Input Voltage (limits): 6-20V
  • Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
  • Analog Input Pins: 6
  • DC Current per I/O Pin: 40 mA
  • DC Current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA
  • Flash Memory: 32 KB (of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader)
  • SRAM: 2 KB
  • EEPROM: 1 KB
  • Clock Speed: 16 MHz

AVR ATmega 328

The ATmega328 is a single chip micro-controller created by Atmel and belongs to the mega AVR series. The high-performance Atmel 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller combines: 32 KB ISP flash memory with read-while-write capabilities; 1 KB EEPROM; 2 KB SRAM; 23 general purpose I/O lines; 32 general purpose working registers; three flexible timer/counters with compare modes; internal and external interrupts; serial programmable usart; a byte-oriented, 2-wire serial interface; spi serial-port; a 6-channel, 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (8 channels in tqfp and  qfn/mlf  packages); programmable watchdog timer with internal oscillator; and five software-selectable power saving modes. The device operates between 1.8-5.5 volts. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the device achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz, balancing power consumption and processing speed.

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